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  Controlling antibiotic uses around the world
Last revised: August 24, 1999


Recommandations and reports

* Office International des Epizooties
  European Scientific Conference
  The Use of Antibiotics in Animals Ensuring the Protection of Public Health - Paris, 24-26 March 1999
  Conclusions and Recommandations

* Statens Serum Institut - Danish Zoonosis Centre
  DANMAP Reports: Consumption of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from food animals, food and humans in Denmark

* The American Academy of Microbiology
  Antimicrobial Resistance: An Ecological Perspective (July 1999)
  Download report (pdf file)

* The Australian Ministers for Health and Aged Care, and for Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  Joint Expert Technical Advisory Committee on Antibiotic Resistance (JETACAR)
  JETACAR report - 22 October 1999
  The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals: antibiotic-resistant bacteria in animals and humans (pdf file)

* The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products
  Veterinary Medecines Evaluation Unit
  Antibiotic Resistance in the European Union Assiocated with Therapeutic use of Veterinary Medecines - 14 July 1999
  Download report and qualitative risk assessment (zip file)

* The European Commission
  Opinion of the Scientific Steering Committee on Antimicrobial Resistance - 28 May 1999 View/download opinion in PDF format (576 KB)
Council Resolution of 8 June 1999 on antibiotic resistance 'A strategy against the microbial threat' Official Journal C 195, 13/07/1999 p.0001 - 0003

* International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
  Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria from Animal Origin, Volume 14 Issue 4, May 2000.
Special issue free full text (PDF) at

Networks and surveillance systems

* APUA (Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics) - Dedicated to preserving the power of antibiotics

* Anti-Infective Drug Resistance. Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response (CSR) - World Health Organisation (WHO)

* ARBAO - Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria from Animal Origin

* CDER Home Page (Center for Drug Evaluation and Research) - U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

* Controlling Antimicrobial Resistance - An Integrated Action Plan for Canadians - Organized by Health Canada and The Canadian Infectious Disease Society

* DAP - Action Programme on Essential Drugs World Health Organisation (WHO) in collaboration with the World Bank, UNICEF, UNDP, other UN organizations and NGOs

* EARSS - RIVM (National Institute of Public Health and the Environment - European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network)

* ENARE - European Network for Antimicrobial Resistance and Epidemiology - based at the Eijkman-Winkler Institute for Medical Microbiology, University Hospital Utrecht

* ESCMID - European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

* EUCAST - European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

* HARMONY: Harmonisation of Antibiotic Resistant measurement, Methods of typing Organisms and ways of using these and other tools to increase the effectiveness of Nosocomial infection control. HARMONY is a European Union DG-XII-funded Fourth Framework Concerted Action

* NARMS: The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System was established in 1996 as a collaborative effort among the Food and Drug Administrations’ Center for Veterinary Medicine (FDA CVM), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The NARMS program monitors changes in susceptibilities of human and animal enteric bacteria to 17 antimicrobial drugs.

* NARSA: Network on Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

* Promoting appropriate antibiotic use in the Community - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

* Resistance WEB™ - Analyzing Antibiotic Resistance Trends with Antibiotic Utilization

* ROAR (Reservoirs of Antibiotic Resistance Network) A unique network dedicated to generating a new impetus worldwide for research on commensal bacteria as reservoirs of resistance that can be transferred to human pathogens

* WARN - World Antibiotic Resistance Network

Other links


* The European Commission:

European legislation on Animal feedingstuffs: index

Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition - Outcome of discussions

* The Medical Impact of the Use of Antimicrobials in Food Animals. Report of a WHO Meeting Berlin, Germany, 13-17 October 1997.

* Use of Quinolones in Food Animals and Potential Impact on Human Health. Report of a WHO meeting, Geneva, World Health Organization, 2-5 June 1998 (WHO/EMC/ZDI/98.10)

* "Petition to Rescind Approvals of the Subtherapeutic Uses in Livestock of Antibiotics Used in (or Related to Those Used in) Human Medicine". Submitted by the Center for Science in the Public Interest - Environmental Defense Fund - Food Animal Concerns Trust -Public Citizen’s Health Research Group - Union of Concerned Scientists. March 9, 1999

* Antibiotics for animals. The Animal Health Industry’s Commitment To Understanding the Causes of Antibiotic Resistance, FEDESA.


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© Service of Biosafety & Biotechnology - Author: Jean-Marc Collard